Water project "GP". The merchant river without taxes, three day battle with the fascist divisions and the manor created by the Italian architect. The history of Gavia River


The name of the river Gavya, like many toponyms of the Iviev region, according to one of the versions is of Lithuanian origin. And it means "grazing calves." And indeed, its wide valley, sometimes exceeding a thousand meters, it fed and watered a large number of animals

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It should be said about the other meaning of the river - economic. The Gavia and its tributary Zhizhma played a huge role in the development of trade. It was forest and many other goods floating down to the Neman, and then further along it to Western Europe

Understanding the importance of this sphere for the economy, the Sejm of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1775 even forbade collecting taxes for the floating of cargo in Gavia and Zhizhma so not to interfere with trade. Gavia is indicated in the report of the Ministry of Roads and Communications of Russia for 1904 as an important river float.

Peter Lavrov, a famous Russian explorer, wrote in 1849 that in spring Gavia used to float a different tree on rafts, starting with Devenishak (now in Lithuania). Water mills worked in Zhemyslavl, Subbotniki, in the village Gavya. Besides the forest, flax and hemp (hemp fiber), starch and potash (wood ash), linseed and hemp seed, even grain, and later alcohol were floated to the Neman.



Gavia run almost 70 kilometres of its 100 kilometers of across the territory of the Ivievshchyna. It is replenished with the waters of a small Kleva river on the very border with Lithuania from where a river comes to us. Yakunka and Opita flow into it downstream, and the largest tributary is Zhizhma. Gavia sails along the eastern part of the Lida plain and in the south along the Prinemanskaya lowland. Therefore, its flow is quiet and slow.

On the shores of Gavia, a lot of events happened. On June 25, 1941, the division of General Galitsky fought off all types of weapons against the Hitlerite hordes of the titled General von Gott. They detained them for three days with heavy losses for the fascists. And on the night of July 8, 1944, thousands of horses from the cavalry-mechanized corps of the Soviet lieutenant-general Oslikovsky rested and gained strength on the left bank of the River Gavia to continue to drive the enemy tomorrow.

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Of all the settlements, which are quite a few on the banks of Gavija, Zhemyslavl and Subbotniki deserve special attention.


In Zhemyslavl, the main attraction is the manor of Umyastovskie, a monument of manor and park architecture of the XIX century. This manor is considered to be one of the most beautiful ancestral estates preserved in the region. It similar to the palace of the Stanislav August Poniatowski Lazienki, the king of the Commonwealth, in Warsaw. The author of the project is considered Leonard Marconi, the famous Italian architect. The manor began to build the mother of Vladislav Umyastovsky Jozef, she herself made many sketches for furniture, decorative elements. Vladislav and his wife Yanina, having moved here after the death of their mother, planned to establish a knight at the very top if they had a son. And if the daughter - there should have been "bloomed" roses. But neither the knight nor the roses have decorated the estate ..


The last owner Vladislav Umyastovsky gave the manot under the scientific base with the natural history and agricultural specialization of the Vilnius University. During the First World War, a German military sanatorium was located here. After World War II - the kolkhoz government, post office, club, library. Now the estate is experiencing its rebirth.



Like Zhemyslavl, Subbotniki are associated with the Umyastovskie. The name Subbotniki appeared only at the end of the XVII century, before that the settlement was called Geranen Monividov, or Old Geranen

Since 1904, the church of St. Vladislav stands here,which was built with the money of Count Umyastovsky. People talk a lot and willingly about representatives of this line. Because the count Vladislav was the real owner. In Ivievshchina, he opened brick and alcohol factories, organized the processing of flax, made a stone road from Zhemyslavl to Vilno. It wasn’t easy to be hired by him, but losing the job forever was very easy. It was enough to beсome guilty and you are fired. But those who worked diligently, could afford to buy some kind of "equipment" for the cultivation of the land.


The church in the Subbotniki is interesting first of all by the tomb of Umyastovskie, preserved intact. The temple was built by Vladislav and Ioannina. You can go down in the tomb. And it is better to do this when it gets dark - in a ray of light from the lantern, the starry sky on the ceiling plays a special way. In the church on many objects there is the emblem of Janina and Vladislav Umyastovskie - it means that they were made on their order. So the temple is quite comparable with the museum.

Today Subbotniki is a comfortable and comfortable agro-town. And thanks to the rich past, the center of the village council and Zhemyslavl are often visited by tourists. There is interest from investors.
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